All posts by sikula_web@centrum.cz

Development of a postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residency in clinical pharmacogenetics [Special Feature]

Purpose

The structure and development of an innovative, ASHP-accredited postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) clinical pharmacogenetics residency program are described.

Summary

A 12-month PGY2 clinical pharmacogenetics residency was created at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in accordance with the ASHP standards for advanced practice residencies. The purpose of this 12-month residency program is to prepare pharmacy residents to implement pharmacogenetics in clinical practice. The program helps residents develop expertise in the science of pharmacogenetics as well as an understanding of translational research, innovative pharmacy practice model development, and clinical informatics. The resident learns to optimize patient outcomes through the expert provision of evidence-based, patient-centered precision medicine as an integral part of an interprofessional team. After completing the program, residents are expected to have the clinical skills necessary to practice in the field of clinical pharmacogenetics and independently implement pharmacogenetic testing in other health-system settings. Because implementation of pharmacogenetics requires collaboration across many disciplines, residents works within an interprofessional team of physicians, nurses, informatics specialists, pharmacists, and clinical laboratory personnel to achieve program goals. Since the first resident graduated in 2012, the program has graduated 1 resident each year. Graduated residents have accepted pharmacogenetics positions at major academic medical centers and community hospitals, as well as academic and research positions with a pharmacogenetics emphasis.

Conclusion

A PGY2 clinical pharmacogenetics residency was successfully developed at St. Jude in 2013. After completion of the program, residents are equipped with the clinical skills and necessary experience to drive precision medicine forward and lead the implementation of pharmacogenetic testing in other healthcare settings.

The University of North Carolina Medical Center pharmacy resident leadership certificate program [Special Feature]

Purpose

The development and implementation of a certificate program for pharmacy residents are described.

Summary

University of North Carolina (UNC) Medical Center met the call for increased efforts in the area of pharmacy residency leadership training through the design, implementation, and evaluation of a leadership certificate program. The purpose of the UNC certificate program is to develop leaders who will serve others, improve their communities, and advance the profession. The program is designed to (1) foster self-awareness, social awareness, and altruism, (2) provide transferable and individualized leadership experiences, (3) enrich other residency components through integration of leadership development opportunities, and (4) create role models for departmental leadership. A team of preceptors and residents implemented the certificate program by integrating program components into the existing pharmacy residency infrastructure. The certificate program includes required and flexible components to allow residents to set and achieve their determined leadership development goals. Overall, residents are satisfied with the program and perceive it as worthwhile. During the first 3 years since implementation of the certification initiative, program facilitators improved the feasibility of, participant engagement in, and sustainability of the program. Future directions include an effectiveness evaluation and a "scale-up" to other institutions.

Conclusion

The need for a pharmacy residency leadership certificate was met by designing, implementing, and evaluating such a program at UNC. Through its first 3 years, the program was feasible, sustainable, and valued by program participants.

Creating objective and measurable postgraduate year 1 residency graduation requirements [Special Feature]

Purpose

The process of developing objective and measurable postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency graduation requirements and a progress tracking system is described.

Summary

The PGY1 residency accreditation standard requires that programs establish criteria that must be met by residents for successful completion of the program (i.e., graduation requirements), which should presumably be aligned with helping residents to achieve the purpose of residency training. In addition, programs must track a resident’s progress toward fulfillment of residency goals and objectives. Defining graduation requirements and establishing the process for tracking residents’ progress are left up to the discretion of the residency program. To help standardize resident performance assessments, leaders of an academic medical center–based PGY1 residency program developed graduation requirement criteria that are objective, measurable, and linked back to residency goals and objectives. A system for tracking resident progress relative to quarterly progress targets was instituted. Leaders also developed a focused, on-the-spot skills assessment termed "the Thunderdome," which was designed for objective evaluation of direct patient care skills. Quarterly data on residents’ progress are used to update and customize each resident’s training plan. Implementation of this system allowed seamless linkage of the training plan, the progress tracking system, and the specified graduation requirement criteria.

Conclusion

PGY1 residency requirements that are objective, that are measurable, and that attempt to identify what skills the resident must demonstrate in order to graduate from the program were developed for use in our residency program. A system for tracking the residents’ progress by comparing residents’ performance to predetermined quarterly benchmarks was developed.

Role of postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residents in providing weekend antimicrobial stewardship coverage in an academic medical center [Special Feature]

Purpose

The integration of pharmacy residents into an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is described, and data on the residents’ ASP interventions and outcomes are reported.

Summary

ASP coverage of nighttime, holiday, and weekend shifts is often provided by infectious diseases (ID) medical fellows and staff pharmacists, potentially leading to inconsistent stewardship practices. As part of an initiative by a large urban hospital to provide around-the-clock, comprehensive ASP services 7 days a week, postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) pharmacy residents in ID or critical care were assigned to provide ASP coverage on weekends. Over a 12-month period, residents providing ASP weekend coverage documented a total of 1,443 interventions, of which 1,000 (69%) were pursuant to 72-hour prospective audit and feedback review and 443 (31%) occurred during ASP phone coverage. A comparison of overall antimicrobial utilization (mean ± S.D. days of therapy [DOT] per 1,000 patient-days [PD]) before and after implementation of resident ASP coverage on weekends showed a decrease in aggregate antimicrobial use from 799.3 ± 46.8 to 740.7 ± 17.3 DOT/1,000 PD (a difference of 58.6 DOT/1,000 PD, p = 0.08), with a corresponding decline in the incidence of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (from 1.18 cases to 0.9 case per 1,000 PD).

Conclusion

By expanding the hospital’s ASP services by assigning PGY2 pharmacy residents to weekend coverage, the institution was able to provide high-level clinical care 7 days per week, which benefited both patients and PGY2 pharmacy residents while meeting national ASP regulatory requirements.